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Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease that occurs when the level of blood glucose (sugar level) increases due to inadequate production of insulin, or because body’s cells do not respond to insulin or both.

Insulin is a hormone that controlled by the pancreas when diabetes occurs pancreas is not able to make insulin. Simply, when we eat food, carbohydrates break down into glucose, Insulin acts as an important transporter because pancreas produces insulin and acts like a key to let glucose from the food and pass glucose from the bloodstream into the body’s cells to produce energy.

If the pancreas does not produce insulin or produce less insulin, the level of glucose will high into the blood because cells would not able to collect required glucose from blood due to less insulin production which causes a high level of glucose into the blood and leads to a term known as diabetes mellitus.

Fast facts

Some of the key points about diabetes mellitus are:

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition that causes high blood glucose or high sugar level into the blood.

The first complete clinical description of diabetes was given by the Ancient Greek physician Aretaeus of Cappadocia, who also noted the excessive amount of urine which passed through the kidneys.

Diabetes mellitus is characterized into three types:

  • Type-I diabetes mellitus
  • Type-II diabetes mellitus
  • Gestational diabetes

Symptoms often include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. According to world health organization (WHO) latest data in 2016, 422 million adults were living with diabetes mellitus. In 2017, approximately 425 million adults (20-79 years) were living with diabetes mellitus and it is estimated that by 2045 this will rise to 629 million.

Diabetes mellitus caused 4 million deaths in 2017 according to international diabetes federation. If untreated, causes acute (diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state) and severe complications (cardiovascular disease, stroke, foot ulcers, kidney disease and glaucoma). As per World Health Organization, people with fasting glucose levels from 6.1 to 6.9 mmol/l (110 to 125 mg/dl) are considered to have prediabetes.

People who are above 7.8 mmol/l (140 mg/dl), but not over 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl), two hours after a 75 g oral glucose load are considered to have prediabetic hyperglycemia. There is no known preventive measure for type 1 diabetes while type-II diabetes can be prevented or delayed by maintaining a normal body weight.

Blood pressure and cholesterol level should be maintained in diabetes as a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Diabetes is also leading cause of end-stage renal disease.

 

Image Copyright: Google

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