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Diabetes Type I

Type I diabetes is autoimmune disease, known as juvenile diabetes. As it is autoimmune disease, immune system destroys the beta cells of pancreas which are responsible for insulin secretion. Due to lack of insulin, glucose cannot be absorbed by muscles and cells so that blood sugar level increases in our body and causes diabetes that’s why it is also known as insulin dependent diabetes.

 

Cause of Type I Diabetes

The exact cause of type I diabetes is unknown. Some of known causes are:

  • Autoimmune destruction of body cells but not know why destruction takes place.
  • Genetic factors (including family history
  • Environment factors
  • Viral infection (can trigger autoimmune disease)

Sign & Symptoms

Early sign and symptoms are important to recognize the diseases types. Let’s know the sign and symptoms of type I diabetes:

Excessive Urination:

Excessive urination is early sign of diabetes. In diabetes, glucose or sugar level increases into the bloodstream which cause kidney to expel out extra sugar or glucose in the form of urine. More sugar means more you will pee. It is also called polyuria.

Extreme Hunger(polyphagia) or Increased Appetite:

In diabetes, you feel loss of appetite even after taking meal. Glucose which is source of energy for cells and muscles, absorbed by the help of insulin but when insulin lacks, glucose is not absorbed by cells and muscles and lack of energy remains in cells which leads to person feels hungry.

Diabetes type 1 symptom

Feeling of Thirstier:

It is fact that if person has diabetes, frequent urination will take place which cause dehydration in the body and person feels extreme thirsty at that point.

Dry Mouth and Itching:

Due to extreme urination in diabetes, dehydration occurs which causes dryness in our mouth.

Fatigue and Tired:

Body is not using calories that you are eating due to lack of insulin so, you will feel tired.

Weight Loss:

All the sugar calories are wasted into urine and your body gets dehydrated which causes unexplained weight loss.

Blurred Vision:

This is happened when high level of sugar gets deposit into the lens of your eye. It contains extra water into your eye and gets swell which changes the ability to see.

Urinary Tract Infection:

Many bacteria and yeast are balanced in our bladder. These bacteria start to grow on sugar (when high level of glucose) and cause infection. In some people, their bladders are not empty proper during urination. Due to lazy bladder, some bacteria are not flushed out and remain in bladder, cause UTI’s.
Urinary tract infection:

Skin Infection, Yeast Infection:

Yeast grows on sugar when level of glucose increases and cause yeast infection on vagina and penis and a yeast like fungus grows on skin which causes skin infection.

Stomach Pain, Diarrhea:

Diabetes affects the works of GI tract which lead to stomach bloating, pain, diarrhea and vomiting.

Fruity Breath:

Due to high level of glucose and lack of insulin, ketones form which are acetone in nature and release sweet or fruity odor in your breath.

Headache:

In diabetes, headache is associated with high or low level of glucose in your body. People who are early diagnosed with diabetes might have such type of symptom because they are on their first level to manage their diabetes.

Mood Swings:

Sometime managing sugar level can be irritable and stressful. Fluctuations in glucose level can cause mood swings in diabetic persons.

Diagnosis of TID

Diagnosis is a term to explain the sign and symptoms of person. If you have some symptoms like diabetes, health care professional would measure your symptoms by perform some blood test to explain disease types.

Test performed during type I diabetes:

Random or non-fasting blood sugar test

First to understand, what is normal sugar level when you are non-diabetic?

In person, who are not diabetic and on fasting (on empty stomach), sugar level exists between 4.0-6.0 mmol/L which is 72 to 108 mg/dL while not fasting or 2 hrs after eating, sugar level will be up to 7.8 mmol/L that is 140 mg/dL.

Random blood sugar test is taken at an unspecified time or randomly. The value which comes after random sugar test depends upon the last time you eat. According to ADA (American Diabetes Association) criteria, the value between 79-160mg/dL (4.4-7.8mmol/L) in adult is average. When the value lies between 160-200 mg/dL is considered prediabetes while the value >200 mg/dL considered diabetes. This test is less clear than a fasting glucose or oral glucose tolerance test.

Fasting Plasma Glucose or Fasting Blood-Glucose Test

This is another test which is more accurate than random plasma test. In this test, person remains on overnight fast. After overnight fasting, a blood sample is taken to get the actual amount of glucose in our blood. This is helpful because there is no inference of food intake occurs.

In fasting glucose test, normal value is less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L). when value lies between 100-125 mg/Dl (5.6 to 6.9mmol/L) is considered prediabetic while if value is 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher considered diabetes.

Glycated Haemoglobin Test (HbA1C)

This test is used to determine your sugar level over the past two or three months. In this test, how much amount of sugar attach to hemoglobin (an oxygen carrying protein found in red blood cells and gives color to blood cells) in blood. RBC life span is 3 months, so this test can measure the glucose in our blood for the past 3 months. If glucose level was higher in the last few weeks, HbA1c test will be higher. In normal person, the normal range is 4 and 5.6% while 6.5% or higher mean you have diabetes. With the help of this test diabetic patients can adjust their diabetes medicines.

Further, the doctor will also take urine and blood samples to check the thyroid function, liver function, kidney function and cholesterol level.

Treatment: Type I Diabetes

Before start to treatment let’s start an overview on type I diabetes-In type I diabetes glucose or sugar level increases our blood due to lack of insulin so type I diabetes treatment starts with administration of insulin. So, our first treatment will start with insulin. Insulin is given by two methods of administration-injection and pump.

Insulin Injections

Diabetes Type I

In this method insulin is given by injection on regular basis. Most people require two or three injections in a day. You cannot skip your routine which is unpleasant at first but can be manageable once you get the hang of it. but if you want to get over this hassle, you can have another alternate of insulin injection as insulin pump.

 

 

 

Insulin Pump

Insulin pump is a small device that holds insulin and releases as much as you required. A battery-operated device helps you to control and monitor your insulin release. This insulin pump is inserted under your skin. Some people insert pump into their stomach, hips, buttocks and arms. Insulin flows through a flexible tube called cannula to your body. When you eat foods, you can release insulin through use of this device as much you required. Insulin enters fat cells and then mixes with blood. The tube can be left for two or three days or until needs to be replaced. However, it is not preferable for everyone. Doctor or nurse will suggest you whether to use it or not or if you have sudden episodes of hypoglycemia.

type I diabetes treatment

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Control Your Blood Glucose

Your blood glucose should be controlled. For that you should take reading of your glucose level every three or six months. This will help you to set treatment plan according to report. HbA1c is a test to know about your glucose level in your blood. This test helps you measure glucose level in your blood over the past two or three months. For more information, please read above described test (HbA1c).

Control Hyper and Hypoglycemia

Hyperglycemia means high glucose into the blood. This condition occurs when your diet is not adjustable, or you are not taking insulin properly. Hyperglycemia can be danger if not treated immediately. When it occurs, body starts to break down fats instead of glucose for energy requirements. This will lead to higher production of glucose in our blood and ketones body will form. This condition is known as diabetic ketoacidosis. This condition can lead to unconsciousness and death if not treated fast. So, if you have diabetic ketoacidosis, urgent hospitalization is required. You’ll be given insulin through intravenously and other fluids is given by a drip in case of dehydration.

Hypoglycemia means low level of glucose into the blood. This happens when insulin increases in your body and this is due to use of insulin and tablets in large quantity. If you have type I diabetes, this can be happened with you. In this case you will feel drowsy, weak, hungry and confuse. In such type of cases you should keep inside a chocolate or sugar candy which will act quickly. If case is more severe than you may need to have an injection of glucagon (hormone that increases your blood glucose levels) into your muscle.

Artificial Pancreas

Artificial pancreas has three types of devices:

  • Continuous glucose monitor
  • Computer controlled algorithm
  • Insulin fusion pump

This will monitor your blood glucose automatically and adjusts the delivery of insulin to reduce high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) and minimize the incidence of low blood glucose (hypoglycemia).

Other Medications

Type I diabetes can originate long term complications such as heart attack, stroke and kidney disease. So, doctor advises to take other medications also.

Anti-Hypertensive

To control high blood pressure.

Statin(SIMVASTATIN)

To reduce high level of cholesterol.

Ace Inhibitor- Enalapril Ramipril etc

To reduce early sign of diabetic kidney disease.

Asprin

Low dose to prevent stroke

7 Lifestyle Changes To Control Your Type I Diabetes

  • Take low sugar and carbohydrates food
  • Exercise for daily 30 min. you don’t need to do rigorous activity. Just walk and do breathing exercise.
  • Get regular check up as your doctor advised. Don’t skip any test or check-up.
  • Control over alcohol because this can make your blood sugar high.
  • Say no to smoking because diabetes can lead to other complications such as stroke, heart attack and kidney diseases. If you smoke, your chance can get higher.
  • Remain peace and calm by adopting habits such as yoga, meditation and deep breathing. This will help you to control your stress level also.
  • Take your insulin properly and don’t skip it.

 

 Image Copyright: Google

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