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Heart Attack

Heart disease (Cardiovascular Disease, CVD)

Heart disease is known as cardiovascular disease or blood vessel disease. Diseases under the heart disease or CVD bunch include coronary heart disease (CAD) such as angina and myocardial infraction. These cardiovascular diseases commonly cause  heart attack or death.

The other cardiovascular diseases are stroke, heart failure, rheumatic heart disease, peripheral artery disease and venous thrombosis. Together they resulted in 17.7 million people’s deaths from CVDs in 2015, representing 31% of all global deaths. Of these deaths, an estimated 7.4 million were due to coronary heart disease and 6.7 million were due to stroke.

Coronary heart disease (CAD)

  • Angina
  • Myocardial infraction


There are other heart diseases which are also cause of heart failure and leads to death at the end if not cure. Angina is also a condition where sufficient amount of blood flow reduced, and heart doesn’t get enough oxygen rich blood to pump properly which cause chest pain and discomfort.


For example:

  • Shoulders
  • Jaw
  • Arm
  • Neck
  • Back

It should be treated earlier before getting convert into heart attack.


Myocardial infraction

mayocardial infraction

Myocardial infraction (MI) is like an angina but the only difference is that angina does not damage heart muscle like an MI does. Angina can be get better with rest or medicine. In MI, due to inappropriate blood flow to heart or one of the arteries that supplies blood to heart muscle becomes blocked. The blockage results in damaged tissue and a permanent loss of muscle that carry oxygen rich blood to heart.






Cause of CVD

The heart pumps normal when appropriate amount of blood reach to the heart throughout the body. In case of heart disease or CVD, amount of oxygenated blood gets reduced due to clot formation into the artery, plaque formation, heart muscle blockage or damage. This leads to heart problem or CVD.  Let’s understand with given picture of CVD.


B is normal coronary artery while C artery is captured by plaque that reduced its area of surface or cause its narrowing and ultimate reduced blood flow to heart.







Risk factor of cardiovascular diseases (CVD)

If you have a heartbeat, there is still time for your dreams. A risk factor is something that can help you to get over a disease. There are many risk factors associated with CVD some can be controlled or not.

Controlled Include: 

  • High blood pressure
  • High blood cholesterol
  • Diabetes
  • Smoking
  • Obesity
  • Physical inactivity.
  • Uncontrolled stress and anger
  • Alcohol consumption
  • Unsafe sex
  • Air pollution
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD) and reduced lung function

Uncontrolled Include:

  • Being post-menopausal
  • Family history of heart disease
  • Race and ethnicity
  • Gender (male at high risk compare to females)
  • Age (increase age or older)
  • Fibromuscular Dysplasia (FMD) (when some of arteries which carry blood throughout the body do not develop as they should, or fibrous tissue grows on the wall of arteries and make them narrow so that blood flow decrease.)

Sign and Symptoms:

Symptom of disease play important role to know about a type of disease. Doctors usually diagnose disease by observing sign and symptoms, medical history and risk factors. There are many different types of cardiovascular disease. Sign and Symptoms will depend upon the specific type of disease a patient has.

General sign and symptoms are:

  • Irregular heartbeat or shortness of breath
  • Change in sleep patterns
  • Extreme fatigue
  • Light-headedness and fainting
  • Nausea, dizziness
  • Loss of appetite
  • Restless and confusion
  • Difficulty in breathing when in rest or during regular activity.
  • Chest pain, chest pressure and discomfort.
  • Swelling of legs, feet and ankles.
  • Pale grey and blue color appearance.

Threatening sign and symptoms:

  • Indigestion or heartburn
  • Pain and pressure in center of your chest which remain or goes back and come back.
  • Discomfort when moving your arm, jaw and back
  • Weakness and shortening of breath
  • Fluids in lungs.
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Sweating day and night

Some threatening sign and symptom pay attention to women:

  • Loss of appetite
  • Weakness, coughing
  • Nausea, vomiting
  • Loss of breath
  • Back and jaw pain

Prevention/stoppage: Every year many of patient died due to CVD or heart attack. People need to aware their families or themselves to maintain a healthy life.Prevention is always better than cure. Although all of heart diseases cannot be preventable but some of them are preventable.

Lifestyle and changes that can help you are:

  • Try to avoid extra oily foods.
  • Take heart healthy foods.
  • Control diabetes
  • Control high blood pressure
  • Improve cholesterol level (do 6-month check-up for cholesterol)
  • Try to keep calm and stress free.
  • Do exercise at least 30 min. a day regularly.
  • Maintain a healthy weight.
  • Avoid junk foods and street foods.
  • Focus on cardiac exercise and do it regularly.
  • Mediation, yoga (helps to keep calm and relax)
  • Say no to smoking
  • Reduce the consumption of alcohol.

Important consideration during heart attack:


  • Help the person to sit down, rest.
  • Loosen the tight clothing, if any (relax)
  • Call ambulance in emergency.
  • If person is unconscious, perform CPR.
  • CPR is cardiopulmonary resuscitation. It is technique for revitalize someone whose heart has stopped beating by giving mouth to mouth breathing.











  • Give aspirin (300mg) to person and ask the person to chew or swallow it but make sure that the person is not allergic to aspirin.
  • Give the patient reassurance that nothing has happened, you are fine like that before the ambulance arrives.


  • Do not leave the person alone.
  • Do not give the person anything by mouth.
  • Do not wait to see the symptoms go away.

Image Copyright: Google images

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