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Thyroid

Thyroid is a problem of thyroid gland. This gland is one of endocrine gland works to maintain proper use of thyroid hormones. Thyroid gland is like butterfly shape and present in front of neck below the thyroid cartilage. The thyroid gland produces the thyroid hormones which regulate the metabolic processes of our body. Goiter which is well known, caused by enlargement of thyroid gland and lead to the chances of life threatening cancer.

Fast Facts About Thyroid

  • Thyroid is a disorder of thyroid gland influenced by thyroid gland induced hormones. Thyroid hormones regulate the metabolic processes of our body.
  • There are two types of thyroid: Hypothyroidism (Less thyroid hormone) and Hyperthyroidism ( high production of thyroid hormone).
  • There are mainly three types of hormones play an important role in thyroid problems know as T3, T4 and TSH(Thyroid stimulating hormones).
  • Thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH), Non-protein-bound thyroxine or T4 and Anti-thyroid auto antibodies.
  • The symptoms of thyroid disease depend upon variations of thyroid types:
    • Hypothyroidism (Insufficient thyroid hormone)
    • Hyperthyroidism (Too much thyroid hormone)
    • Structural abnormality or Goiter (Enlargement of thyroid gland)
    • Tumors ( May be benign or cancerous)
    • Diagnosis means use of laboratory tests namely

Causes

There are different types of thyroid disorders present in medical health. Hypothyroidism is caused by deficiency of thyroid hormones. It is auto immune disease and develops in person with inflammatory disorder known as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.  Long term use of medications or use of radiation for hyperthyroidism, a condition can occur known as hypothyroidism.

Hyperthyroidism means overproduction of thyroid hormones. Many factors are responsible for overproduction of thyroid hormones like Graves’ disease. This is an auto-immune condition and causes of overactive thyroid gland.

Sign and Symptoms

  • Fatigue
  • Constipation
  • Poor growth in children
  • Tooth delay in children
  • Anxiety, Depression
  • Weight gain or weight loss
  • Dry skin and hair loss
  • Menstrual Delay or irregular
  • Muscle and joint pain
  • Fluid retention
  • Cold temperature unbearable
  • Hoarse voice
  • Excessive sweating
  • Osteoporosis in adults
  • Artificial fibrillation in adults
  • Shortness of breath in heart problem if any

Supportive tips for Thyroid cure

  • Lifestyle changes
  • Regular check up or test
  • Yoga and Exercises
  • Diet supplements
  • Herbal remedies

Treatments

For Hyperthyroidism

Hyperthyroidism require a treatments which reduce the amount of thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormone productions can be reduced in three ways: 

  • Anti thyroid medication

Medications are helpful as they reduce the amount of thyroid hormone or decrease its release from gland. Permanent medications are not required in hyperthyroidism, long period medications can increase the symptom of hypothyroidism.  Synthetic thyroid hormone is given in pill form and symptoms starts to disappear in about six to eight week.

If symptoms don’t improve, radioactive iodine therapy is next solution for hyperthyroidism.

  • Radioactive iodine therapy

In this therapy, a small amount or amount depend upon severity of disease is given. Radioactive iodine is present in oral pill form. Given dose enters in our body and absorbed by thyroid cells that causes less exposure to other cells of our body. This therapy is helpful to destroy the enlargement of thyroid gland and this therapy is given for its second dose after six month if symptoms do not improve. In some cases, if patients do not feel benefit from a second dose, they may require surgery.

  • Surgery

Surgery is recommend for those who are:

  • Risk of thyroid cancer or cancerous nodules
  • Symptoms of Goiter or large Goiter
  • Enlargement of thyroid gland
  • If gland producing thyroid hormone in large quantities

Types of surgery performed

Removal of:

  • Full thyroid gland (Thyroidectomy)
  • Half of thyroid gland (Lobectomy or Hemithyroidectomy)
  • Center part of thyroid gland (near-total Thyroidectomy)
  • All over thyroid gland except a little tissue on one side (Isthmusectomy)

Women who are pregnant and have thyroid symptoms can go with surgery as they can not take medications.

For Hypothyroidism

Hypothyroidism can require long term therapy. Both T3 and T4 hormones are used to treat condition hypo. T4 is a treatment which is widely used as compare to T3. T3 is shorter acting as compare to T4 which is naturally converted into T3 in bloodstream. T3 is not steady and requires multiple times a day.

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