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Types Of Diabetes


Diabetes means high sugar or glucose in our blood and lack of insulin production to carry it. Diabetes is the silent killer which kills part by part of our life.


Insulin is a protein-based peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets that controls the amount of sugar in the blood and act as energy source in our body.

Function of Insulin

Cellular metabolism: pancreas produces insulin for glucose because glucose is required by cells for energy production. When insulin secrets from the pancreas, glucose absorbed by cells for cellular metabolism. Without cellular metabolism, individual would die.

Insulin also acts on digestive system. Insulin allow liver, muscle and fat cells to store glucose in form of storage until it is later needed for cellular metabolism. Liver makes less glucose and other glucose stores in form of glycogen known as glycogen storage which is used by later to maintain balance of glucose into the blood. Neither high glucose into the blood nor will be less glucose.

It is detailed that insulin makes use of glucose which is absorbed by cell. But, do you think what will, if insulin does not make use of glucose…body’s cell will start using fat as energy source and level of unused glucose will increase into the blood. Extreme level of glucose into blood causes ketone body production which is known as diabetic ketoacidosis (dry mouth, nausea, vomiting etc.)


Pancreas is large gland organ located behind the stomach and release hormone into the digestive system. It is 6-8 inches long and produce pancreatic enzyme to aid digestion. Unhealthy pancreas causes diabetes and cancer.

How Insulin and Pancreas Work

Through biochemical process, carbohydrates which we take from food get converted into small molecule of glucose in the blood. Pancreas have beta cells which form insulin when high sugar or glucose increase into the blood. Insulin take these high sugar or glucose to use as energy or to store as fat so that, level of sugar level to go back down.

Types of Diabetes

Five types of Diabetes

Type I Diabetes:

  • Most common form in children
  • Chronic condition in which pancreas produces little or no insulin

Type II Diabetes:

  • Most common form in adult
  • Insulin resistance


  • Blood sugar is high but not high enough to be type II diabetes.

Neonatal Diabetes:

  • It is rare form of disease.
  • Children under 6 months of age are affected so called neonatal diabetes.
  • Caused by genetic mutation.
  • It is treatable and can be treated with insulin or not.

Gestational Diabetes:

  • Pregnant women who have diabetes know as gestational diabetes.
  • It is temporary but can Increase risk of developing diabetes for both mother and child.

Diabetes Insipidius:

  • Not related to blood sugar or glucose
  • Excessive urination is symptom caused by antidiuretic hormone called vasopressin.

Diabetes LADA (Latent Autoimmune Diabetes of Adult):

  • A form of type I diabetes that can occur in adult
  • Sometimes known as type 1.5 diabetes.
  • Known as latent autoimmune diabetes.
  • Person who have type I and prediabetes, but treatment is not helping much, may have LADA

Diabetes MODY (Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young):

  • Different from both type I and type II diabetes
  • Cause by mutation in a single gene
  • Child can have 50% of chances of this diabetes if parent have mutated gene present.

Double Diabetes:

  • It occurs when insulin resistance happens in type I diabetes which is key feature of type II diabetes.
  • Mostly occurs in those persons who have both type I and type II diabetes.

Type III Diabetes:

  • Type III diabetes is a type of Alzheimer’s disease.
  • It occurs when insulin resistance happens in the brain.
  • The person who has suffered from type II diabetes might have increased chance of type III diabetes.

Alstrom Syndrome:

  • A rare genetic disorder affects the persons who are type II diabetic and have “insulin resistance”.
  • Caused by mutation in the ALMS1 gene.
  • It is multiorgan diseases that affects many parts of our body.
  • Eye problem, hearing loss, photophobia, heart problem and obesity are some features of Alstrom syndrome.

Cystic Fibrosis Related Diabetes:

  • Genetic mutation in CFTR gene.
  • Often treated with insulin.
  • 40-50% of adults have cystic fibrosis developing diabetes.

Labile Diabetes:

  • It is sub type of type I diabetes.
  • Rare not serious.
  • Also called Brittle diabetes in which person who has type I diabetes and hard to control type I diabetes.
  • Many swings between high and low glucose, causing hyper and hypoglycaemia.









Drug Factor:

  • Some of drugs have side effect to induce the diabetes.
  • Beta blockers, corticosteroids, thiazide diuretics and antipsychotic are some drugs who are also cause of diabetes.

Steroid Induced Diabetes:

Diabetes which is caused by steroid used drugs is know as steroid induced diabetes. For example: corticosteroids.


Wolfram Syndrome:

Very rare genetic disorder which is caused by mutation in WFS1 gene. Also known as DIDMORD.

What is honeymoon phase in diabetes?

It is temporary and short period depend upon person to person. This is called honeymoon phase because in this phase, beta cells produce a small amount of insulin after person is diagnosed with type I diabetes. So, person who has this phase, is required minimal amount of insulin by injection or pump.


Image Copyright: Google

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