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Heart Attack

Heart Attack (Cardiovascular Disease, CVD)

Heart attack or disease is known as cardiovascular disease or blood vessel disease. Diseases under the heart disease or CVD bunch include coronary heart diseases (CAD) such as angina and myocardial infarction. These cardiovascular diseases commonly cause the heart attack or death.

The other cardiovascular diseases are a stroke, heart failure, rheumatic heart disease, peripheral artery disease and venous thrombosis. Together they resulted in 17.7 million people’s deaths from CVDs in 2015, representing 31% of all global deaths. Deaths were 7.4 million due to coronary heart disease and 6.7 million were due to stroke.

Cause of CVD

The heart pumps normal when an appropriate amount of blood reaches to the heart throughout the body. In case of heart disease or CVD, amount of oxygenated blood gets reduced due to clot formation into the artery, plaque formation, heart muscle blockage or damage. This leads to a heart attack or CVD.  Let’s understand with given picture of CVD.

Heart Attack, Sign and Symptoms of Heart Attack, Causes of Heart Attack, Risk Factors of Heart Attack

B is a normal coronary artery while C artery is captured by a plaque that reduced its area of the surface or causes its narrowing and ultimately reduced blood flow to the heart.

The risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD)or Heart Attack

If you have a heartbeat, there is still time for your dreams. A risk factor is something that can help you to get over a disease or heart attack. There are many risk factors associated with CVD or heart attack. Some can be controlled or not.

Controlled Include: 

  • High blood pressure
  • High blood cholesterol
  • Diabetes
  • Smoking
  • Obesity
  • Physical inactivity.
  • Uncontrolled stress and anger
  • Alcohol consumption
  • Unsafe sex
  • Air pollution
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD) and reduced lung function

Uncontrolled Include:

  • Being post-menopausal
  • The family history of heart disease
  • Race and ethnicity
  • Gender (male at high risk compared to females)
  • Age (increase age or older)
  • Fibromuscular Dysplasia (FMD) (when some of the arteries which carry blood throughout the body do not develop as they should, or fibrous tissue grows on the wall of arteries and make them narrow so that blood flow decrease.)

Sign and Symptoms:

The symptom of disease plays an important role to know about a type of disease. Doctors usually diagnose disease by observing sign and symptoms, medical history and risk factors. There are many different types of cardiovascular disease. Sign and Symptoms will depend upon the specific type of disease a patient has and its severity.

General sign and symptoms are:

  • Irregular heartbeat or shortness of breath
  • Change in sleep patterns
  • Extreme fatigue
  • Light-headedness and fainting
  • Nausea, dizziness
  • Loss of appetite
  • Restless and confusion
  • Difficulty in breathing when in rest or during regular activity.
  • Chest pain, chest pressure and discomfort.
  • Swelling of legs, feet, and ankles.
  • Pale grey and blue color appearance.

Threatening sign and symptoms:

  • Indigestion or heartburn
  • Pain and pressure in the center of your chest which remains or goes back and comes back.
  • Discomfort when moving your arm, jaw, and back
  • Weakness and shortening of breath
  • Fluids in lungs.
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Sweating day and night

Some threatening sign and symptom pay attention to women:

  • Loss of appetite
  • Weakness, coughing
  • Nausea, vomiting
  • Loss of breath
  • Back and jaw pain

Prevention/stoppage: Every year many of patient died due to CVD or heart attack. People need to aware their families or themselves to maintain a healthy life. Prevention is always better than cure. Although all of the heart diseases cannot be preventable some of them are preventable.

Lifestyle and changes that can help you to reduce chances of the heart attack:

  • Try to avoid extra oily foods.
  • Take heart-healthy foods.
  • Control diabetes
  • Control high blood pressure
  • Improve cholesterol level (do 6-month check-up for cholesterol)
  • Try to keep calm and stress-free.
  • Habit of exercise at least 30 min. a day regularly.
  • Maintain a healthy weight.
  • Avoid junk foods and street foods.
  • Focus on cardiac exercise and do it regularly.
  • Mediation, yoga (helps to keep calm and relax)
  • Say no to smoking
  • Reduce the consumption of alcohol.

The important consideration during the heart attack:


  • Help the person to sit down, rest.
  • Loosen the tight clothing, if any (relax)
  • Call an ambulance in the emergency.
  • If a person is unconscious, perform CPR.
  • CPR is cardiopulmonary resuscitation. It is a technique to revitalize someone whose heart has stopped beating by giving mouth to mouth breathing.


  • Give aspirin (300mg) to person and ask the person to chew or swallow it but make sure that the person is not allergic to aspirin.
    Give the patient reassurance that nothing has happened, assure that you are fine until the ambulance arrives.


  • Do not leave the person alone.
  • Do not give the person anything by mouth.
  • Do not wait to see the symptoms go away.

Image Copyright: Google images

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