Type II Diabetes
Type II diabetes is a long-term chronic metabolic disorder known as non-insulin dependent diabetes. Type II diabetes means insulin resistance. Your pancreas is producing insulin but your body’s cells do not take up or pancreas is producing insulin but that is not enough to carry glucose and make energy for cells. For some people, it is hard to believe that you have diabetes. But you don’t need to worry. A proper guidance, treatment plan, and your lifestyle management can make you feel happy again.
Fast Facts about Type II Diabetes
- Type II diabetes is a chronic illness which increases the level of glucose in the blood due to insulin resistance.
- In 2015, 392 million people were diagnosed with diabetes while in 1985, was around 30 million.
- It is adult onset and non-insulin dependent diabetes. The primary cause of type II diabetes is obesity and lack of exercise.
- Type II diabetes is associated with a genetic factor, if a person in your family has diabetes, you will have strong chances to get it.
- Long-term complications due to diabetes are a heart attack, loss of vision and foot ulcer.
- It is partly preventable if you change your lifestyle by staying a normal weight, regular exercise and eat properly.
Difference: Type I Diabetes & Type II Diabetes
Causes of Type II Diabetes
The exact cause of type II diabetes is unknown but there are several risk factors which are contributed.
Insulin is the main peptide hormone who regulates the glucose and makes energy for cells of our body. Both type I and type II, insulin plays an important role. In type II diabetes, insulin resistance takes place or pancreas is producing insulin which is not enough for glucose uptake. Glucose will remain into the blood and its level will increase into the blood.
Risk Factors of Type II Diabetes
There are many risk factors for type II:
Type II diabetes can be heredity. If someone has diabetes in your family, you will have chances of developing it.
If your maximum fat stores in your abdomen as compare to other parts of your body such as hips and thighs, you have a higher risk of developing type II diabetes.
Age is also a contributing factor. When you get older your chances of type II diabetes increases. For example: After age 40.
Prediabetes is a condition in which your glucose level is slightly high than normal but not so high to be considered diabetic but if this condition is not treated, symptoms will be progressed into diabetes.
Loss of Exercise or Activity
If you are lazy to do exercise, you can have chances of type II because the number of fats will increase in your body and make you fatty. Remember obesity is a risk factor for type II diabetes.
You don’t have to be overweight to develop type 2 diabetes because overweight increases fats composition in your body and your body’s cells become resistant to insulin. Control your weight.
If you have gestation diabetes you may have a risk of type II. After pregnancy consult with your doctor.
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
Women who are on irregular menstrual periods, obesity and have excess hair growth can have a risk of type II diabetes.
Some numbers of medications can increase the risk of type II known as drug-induced diabetes.
- Niacin, a vitamin B3
Sign and symptoms
- Weight loss or gain
- Frequent infections (UTI’s)
- Delay in healing
- Increased Hunger
- Increased Thirst
- Frequent urination
- Blurred vision
- Patches of dark on the skin
- Dizziness, headache, sweating, hunger, shaking and increased heart rate (due to hypoglycemia)
Fasting Plasma Glucose or Fasting Blood-Glucose Test
As the name suggests fasting means the patient does not eat for 7-8 hrs. After overnight fasting, a blood sample is taken to get the actual amount of glucose in our blood. This test will help you to know the amount of sugar present in the blood. Variation is:
- If the value is less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) considered normal.
- When value lies between 100-125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9mmol/L) is considered prediabetic.
- When value is 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher considered diabetes.
Glycated Haemoglobin Test (HbA1C)
This is another type of test for type II diabetes. This is used to determine your sugar level over the past two or three months. Patients should go with this test for two and three times a year. In this test, you can determine the amount of sugar attached to hemoglobin in the blood. RBC lifespan is 3 months, so this test can measure the glucose in our blood for the past 3 months. If the glucose level was higher in the last few weeks, the HbA1c test will be higher. In a normal person, the normal range is 4 and 5.6% while 6.5% or higher mean you have diabetes. If persons present with the prediabetic result, he or she has a 40-50% chances of type II if they do not make changes in their lifestyle.
This test is helpful to manage your diet plan, lifestyle changes. In addition, with this test, the doctor will also take urine and blood samples to check the thyroid function, liver function, kidney function and cholesterol level.
Random or Non-Fasting Blood Sugar Test
This test is performed at a non-fasting time. Random blood sugar test is taken at an unspecified time or randomly. But this is not accurate to diagnose prediabetes. So other tests can be checked out. The value which comes after random sugar test depends upon the last time you ate. If the value lies between 160-200 mg/dL, is considered prediabetes while the value >200 mg/dL considered diabetes.
Oral Glucose Tolerance Test
This OGTT test which is performed when you are on empty stomach or fasting about 8 hrs. in this test a blood sample is taken and then a sugary drink which contains glucose is given to you. After you drink it, again blood sample will be taken to check how your insulin is performing to that drink. This test is common in gestational diabetes. The possible result of OGTT are:
- If less than 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L) -normal.
- If 140-199 mg/dL-prediabetes.
- And 200 mg/dL or higher-diabetes.
9 Lifestyle Changes For Type II Diabetes
- Normal regular exercise for 30 min.
- Regular check-up of blood glucose level between 2-3 months.
- Eat healthy and less sugary or carbohydrates products and also include a perfect diabetic meal plan.
- Do meditation, yoga for your self-realization.
- Say no to smoking because it can increase the chances of long-term complications such as heart problem, stroke, kidney problem.
- Maintain your healthy weight, a high weight can increase the chances of heart attack along with diabetes.
- Eat dietary fiber which can easily digest and make your bowel healthy.
- Aware of use of vaccines such as influenza and the pneumococcal vaccine will help you to keep away from infections.
- Proper use of prescribed medications by doctors.
Medications and Insulin Therapy
You can control your type II diabetes with the help of a diet plan and lifestyle changes but if you are not able to control it alone, medication is another help. The possible medications are:
Metformin often prescribed first in type II diabetes because it is stronger acting medicine.
How It Works
- It helps to increase the sensitivity of tissues and cells to insulin and promote the uptake of glucose into cells by lowering glucose level in the blood.
- It suppresses the gluconeogenesis (it is a generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate such as lactate, glycerol, and amino acids). It is also helpful for weight loss.
- Before taking any drug, we should know about their side effects and their interactions with another drug. Metformin drug interacts with alcohol and causes hypoglycemia and severe liver complication.
- Do not drink alcohol if you are on metformin. Sometimes nausea and diarrhea can occur as side effects.
This is another type of drug for type II diabetes. Sulphonylureas include different classes of drugs:
How It Works
These drugs act on the pancreas and increase the secretion of insulin from the beta cells of the pancreas.
Side effects are:
- Skin reactions
- Nausea and diarrhea
- Weight gain
- Dark-colored urine
- Troubled stomach
- low blood sugar resulting sweating, dizziness, confusion.
This works the same as Sulphonylureas and increases the secretion of insulin from beta cells.
- Weight gain
- low blood sugar resulting sweating, dizziness, confusion.
- Repaglinide (Prandin) and nateglinide (Starlix) are classes of drugs.
- It helps to reduce your increase in blood glucose level after you eat a meal.
- It is recommended less to treat type 2 because it usually causes side effects, such as bloating and diarrhea.
- However, it acts as alternate for another drug.
- DPP-4 inhibitors, GLP-1 receptor agonists, and SGLT2 inhibitors are other drugs which are prescribed in type II.
If those above-prescribed drugs are not effective, then go for Insulin, which is prescribed for type II:
- Insulin detemir (Levemir)
- Insulin Aspart (Novolog)
- Insulin glargine (Lantus)
- Insulin lispro (Humalog)
- Insulin glulisine (Apidra)
Hypoglycemia means a low level of glucose into the blood. This happens when insulin increases in your body and this is due to using insulin and tablets in large quantity. In this case, you will feel drowsy, weak, hungry and confuse. In such type of cases, you should keep inside a chocolate or sugar candy which will act quickly. If a case is more severe than you may need to have an injection of glucagon (a hormone that increases your blood glucose levels) into your muscle.